Directory

Jazmine L. Gabriel

Courtesy Postdoctoral Research Associate, 2012-2014
Philosophy Department
Research Interests: History of Philosophy, Philosophy of Biology

John Gage

Professor
English
Phone: 541-346-3922
Office: 301K Tykeson Hall
Office Hours: By appointment

Cassandra Galentine

English Graduate Student
English, IRES
Phone: 541-346-1496
Office: 335 PLC
Research Interests: Women's Working-Class Literature, Multiethnic U.S. Literature, Environmental Justice, Critical Race and Ethnic Studies

Yuruhary Gallardo García

Graduate student, Spanish PhD
Graduate Employee
Romance Languages
Research Interests: Latin-American art, Latin-American philosophy, decolonial studies, aesthetics, hermeneutics, visual culture, cultural studies

Aaron Galloway

Associate Professor
Biology
Phone: 541-346-7288
Office: Oregon Inst of Marine Biology

Dennis Galvan

Professor
Dean and Vice Provost, Division of Global Engagement
African Studies, Global Studies, Political Science, SAIL
Phone: 541-346-5851
Office: 310 Oregon Hall
Research Interests: culture and development, culturally sustainable development, identity and community, political legitimation, multiple forms of modernity, primary field work in West Africa, secondary field work in Indonesia

Christina Gamache Martin

Postdoctoral Scholar
Center for Translational Neuroscience, Psychology Department
Phone: 541-346-7054
Office: 223 Straub Hall
Research Interests: Maureen Zalewski Lab

Cameron Gamble

Ph.D.
GE
Philosophy Department
Office: 11A Susan Campbell Hall
Office Hours: Winter 2022 Fridays 1 p.m. - 3:00 p.m.
Research Interests: Social and political philosophy, environmental philosophy, critical theory, aesthetics, environmental ethics, Marxist ecology.

Zoë Gamell Brown

Graduate Teaching Fellow
Founder of Fernland Studios
IRES
Phone: 541-346-0900
Research Interests: AfroIndigenous ecological knowledge, Caribbean diaspora, Culinary catharsis, Digital humanities, Gender and sexuality, Hyperrealism, Integrative art, Moana methodologies

Moe Gámez

English Graduate Student / GE
English
Phone: 541-346-3921
Office: PLC 211

David Garcia

Assistant Professor
Biology
Phone: 541-346-5809
Office: 312 Streisinger Hall

Veronica Garcia

Graduate Student and Employee
Global Studies
Office: PLC 304
Research Interests: health care, public health, migration, Latin America, Indigenous

Pedro García-Caro

Associate Professor of Spanish
Provost Fellow for Academic Freedom (2022-2023)
Comparative Literature, Latin American Studies, OCIAS, Romance Languages, SAIL, Spanish, Translation Studies
Phone: 541-346-5813
Office: 325 Friendly Hall
Office Hours: Winter 2023: W. 10am-12pm or by appointment.
Research Interests: Nationalism, Postmodernity, Postcolonial Studies, Environmental Studies, US Hispanic Literatures, Mexican Literature, Border Literature, Comparative American Studies, Transatlantic Studies, Satire, Drama, Translation

Leonardo Garcia-Pabon

Professor Emeriti
Professor of Spanish
Romance Languages, Spanish
Phone: 541-346-4024
Office: 223 Friendly Hall

Annalise Gardella

Graduate Student
Anthropology
Phone: 541-346-5109
Office: 365/366 Condon Hall
Office Hours: Appointment by email request
Research Interests: Gender violence, LGBTQ social movements, feminist social movements, Central America

Kevin Gardner

PhD Candidate
Earth Sciences
Office: Cascade Hall 305A
Research Interests: Fluvial and marginal-marine sedimentology, tidal geomorphology, Baja California tectonics

Diana Garvin

Assistant Professor of Italian, Mediterranean Studies
Food Studies, Italian, Romance Languages
Phone: 541-346-6984
Office: 421 Friendly Hall
Office Hours: Monday, 11:30am-1:30pm
Research Interests: Transnational Italian Studies (East Africa, Brazil), Fascism and Neo-Fascism, Food Studies, Environmental Humanities, Medical Humanities

Alison Gash

Associate Professor
Clark Honors College, Political Science
Phone: 541-346-4876
Office: 922 PLC
Office Hours: F22 - Virtual: Wednesday 8:30-10:30--No OH October 5; (send email with header "OFFICE HOUR APPT" to make an appointment) or join waiting room on zoom https://uoregon.zoom.us/j/96351524725; In-person Thursday 1-2 (mask required)
Research Interests: U.S. Courts, Public Policy, Gender, Race, Sexuality, Civil Rights, Constitutional Law

Ibrahim Gassama

Professor
Frank E. Nash Professor of Law
African Studies, Law, Law-JD
Phone: 541-346-3831
Office: 306B Knight Law Center

Daniel Gavin

Professor
Climate Studies, Geography
Phone: 541-346-5787
Office: 254C Columbia Hall
Research Interests: Biogeography, paleoecology, forest ecology.

Yan Ge

Postdoctoral Scholar
Mathematics
Office: 1 University Hall

Rhone Geha

Graduate Employee, French, MA
RLGSA Secretary Treasurer
Romance Languages
Office: Friendly 30
Office Hours: Mondays 2:45-3:45, Wednesdays 2:00-3:00 McKenzie 175 (Yamada Language Center) or by appointment
Research Interests: 21st and 20th century francophone literature and philosophy, postcolonial studies, cinema studies, archival studies

Kathleen Gekiere

English Graduate Student / GE
English
Phone: 541-346-1496
Office: 335 PLC
Office Hours: Winter Term: Wed 10am-1pm

Madeline Georgevich

M.A.
Philosophy Department
Research Interests: Continental Philosophy, Philosophy of disability, Philosophy of embodiment, Friedrich Nietzsche, Feminist Philosophy

Paul Gerard

Graduate Student
Anthropology
Phone: 541-346-5109
Office: 365/366 Condon Hall
Office Hours: Appointment by email request
Research Interests: Island and coastal archaeology, human ecodynamics, human behavioral ecology, landscape archaeology, GIS

Baran Germen

Comparative Literature Graduate Student
Comparative Literature
Office: 314 Villard
Office Hours: Spring 2018: MW 12:50-1:50
Research Interests: Transmedial queer aesthetics, modern Turkish literature and film, melodrama, affect, queer theory, French critical theory, secularism, and phenomenology

Miriam Gershow

Senior Instructor II
English, Judaic Studies Program, SAIL
Phone: 541-346-0051
Office: 237 PLC
Office Hours: Winter Term: Zoom only; Wed 1-2:30pm, Fri 11-12:30pm

Heidi Gese

Office Specialist 2
Classics, Humanities Program, Judaic Studies Program, Medieval Studies, Religious Studies
Phone: 541-346-9766
Office: 311 Susan Campbell Hall

Elena Ghezzo

PhD
Msc
Earth Sciences
Phone: +1 (541) 514-9818
Office: Cascade Annex 149
Office Hours: 10am-6pm
Research Interests: Vertebrate Paleontology, Pleistocene fauna, GIS and Remote Sensing, data analysis

Puja Ghosh

PhD
GE & Promising Scholar
Philosophy Department
Office: 221 Susan Campbell Hall
Office Hours: Fall 2021 by appointment.
Research Interests: Feminist Phenomenology, De-colonial Thought, Indian Philosophy

Thomas Giachetti

Assistant Professor
Earth Sciences
Phone: 541-346-4706
Office: 224 Volcanology
Research Interests: Volcanology, Geochemistry, Surface Processes

Brandon Gibson

Graduate Employee
Human Physiology
Phone: 541-346-4107
Office: 181 Esslinger Hall

John Gibson

Graduate Employee
Theatre Arts
Phone: 541-346-4204
Office: 107 Villard
Office Hours: By Appointment

Denise Gigliotti

Senior Instructor II, Chinese Language
East Asian Languages
Phone: 541-346-3552
Office: 213 Villard Hall
Office Hours: M/W/F 12:00-12:50 via Zoom (931 3381 1751)
Research Interests: Chinese langauge pedagogy

Spike Gildea

Professor
Director of Graduate Studies
Linguistics
Phone: 541-346-0480
Office: 381 Straub Hall
Office Hours: Mon 2:00p-4:00p, Tue 10:00a-11:00a

Emily Gilkey

Professor pro tempore
History
Office: 340X McKenzie Hall
Research Interests: Modern France, Gender

Peter Gilkey

Professor Emeritus
Institute for Fundamental Science, Mathematics
Phone: 541-346-4717
Office: 202 University Hall

Jack Gillespie

Romance Languages MA Student: Spanish & French
French, Romance Languages, Spanish
Office Hours: Thursdays, 11:00am-1:00pm
Research Interests: Spanish sociolinguistics, Second language acquisition, Romance linguistics, Language teaching

Andréa Gilroy

Pro Tempore Instructor
Comics and Cartoon Studies, Comparative Literature, English
Phone: 541-346-0934
Office: 310 Villard Hall
Office Hours: Not teaching an ENG course this term
Research Interests: Comics studies, American literature and popular culture, Japanese literature and popular culture

Skyler Gin

MS Degree received S2022
Psychology Department

Warren Ginsberg

Professor of English
Emeritus, Philip H. Knight Professor of Humanities Comparative Literature Program Faculty
Comparative Literature, English
Phone: 541-346-3958
Office: 257 PLC
Office Hours: I am retired. You can contact me by email.
Research Interests: I am especially interested in examining the aesthetic, social, and political aspects of cross-cultural translation in Chaucer's works.

Sylvia Giustina

Senior Instructor Emerita
Italian, Romance Languages
Phone: 541-346-4040
Office: 419 Friendly Hall

Thomas Givon

Distinguished Professor Emeritus
Linguistics
Research Interests: Linguisitics and Cognitive Science

Amalia Gladhart

Professor of Spanish
Romance Languages, Spanish
Phone: 541-346-0983
Office: 105B Friendly Hall
Office Hours: Sabbatical leave AY2022-23
Research Interests: Translation Studies (theory and practice), Latin American theater

Ann Glang

Research Professor
Psychology Department
Phone: 541-346-0594
Office: 220D Rainier Bldg.

Adam Glass

Instructor
Chemical Education
Chemistry and Biochemistry
Phone: 541-346-4677
Office: 160C Klamath Hall

Anna Glavash Miller

Interim Assistant Director of Communications
Public Information Representative
College of Arts and Sciences

Galen Gledhill

Graduate Student
Institute for Fundamental Science, Physics Department
Office: 315 Willamette Hall

Marija Glisic

Graduate Student
Institute for Fundamental Science, Physics Department
Phone: 541-346-4722
Office: 410 Willamette Hall

Stephanie Gluck

PhD Received Fall 2022
Psychology Department
Office: 364 Straub Hall
Research Interests: Developmental

Ethan Goad

Multi-Hazards Field Tech
Earth Sciences

Andrew Goble

Professor
Asian Studies, History, Medieval Studies, Religious Studies
Phone: 541-346-4800
Office: 361 McKenzie Hall
Research Interests: Japan

Cruz Godar

PhD student (Young)
Mathematics
Phone: 541-346-5620
Office: 311 Fenton Hall

Grace Godfrey

Operations Manager
Economics, Political Science, Sociology
Phone: 541-346-0765
Office: 936 PLC

Jaxen Godfrey

Graduate Student
Institute for Fundamental Science, Physics Department
Phone: 541-346-4770
Office: 315 Willamette Hall

Steve Godwin

English Graduate Student / GTF
Creative Writing Program
Phone: 541.346.0055
Office: PLC 235
Office Hours: Spring term MF 8-8:50, 10-10:45; W 8-8:50

Billy Dean Goehring

ABD Ph.D.
GE
Philosophy Department
Office: 158 Susan Campbell Hall
Research Interests: European Philosophy, Philosophy of Media and Technology, Northeast Asian Philosophy, Design, History of the Philosophy of Science, Philosophy of Nature

Andrea Goering

Faculty
Physics Department
Phone: 541-346-4871
Office: 143 Willamette Hall

Alicia R. Going

Senior Instructor II
Senior Instructor II
American English Institute
Phone: 541-346-3874
Office: 106 Agate Hall

Dara Goldberg

Postdoctoral scholar
Earth Sciences
Phone: 541-346-4573
Office: 125E Cascade Hall
Research Interests: geodesy, seismology, earthquake source processes

Lewis Goldberg

Professor Emerit
Psychology Department
Phone: 541-484-2123
Office: Oregon Research Institute
Research Interests: Individual Differences

Sander Goldberg

Professor of Practice
Classics
Phone: 541-346-8731
Office: 309 Chapman Hall

Grace Golden

Senior Lecturer I
Program Director/Clinical Research Coordinator- Graduate Athletic Training Program
Human Physiology
Phone: 541-346-4286
Office: 147 Esslinger Hall

Marion Goldman

Professor Emeritus
Sociology
Sociology
Phone: 541-346-5002
Office Hours: By appointment

Daniel Goldrich

Professor Emeritus
Political Science

Casey Goldstein

Doctoral Student
Political Science
Office: 837 PLC
Office Hours: Winter 2023: Wednesdays 12:45PM to 1:45PM

Meir Goldstein

Judaic Studies Instructor
Judaic Studies Program
Office: 346 Susan Campbell Hall
Office Hours: Tuesdays 10:30am-12:00pm
Research Interests: Jewish traditional texts: Tanach (Bible), Talmud, and Medieval Commentary; Jewish Mysticism; History; Hebrew

Doug Gomez

Research Associate
Psychology Department
Phone: 541-346-5270
Office: 233 Jaqua Center

Isaac Gomez

Graduate Employee
Human Physiology
Phone: 541-346-4107
Office: 346 Gerlinger Hall

Susi Gómez

Comparative Literature Graduate Student
Comparative Literature
Office: 218 Villard Hall
Office Hours: On leave
Research Interests: Hemispheric Poetics; Experimental Poetry in the US and Latin America; Cognitive Poetics; Intermedial Studies; Materiality and Literature; The emergence of conceptualism

Leah Gómez

Creative Writing Graduate Student
Creative Writing Program

Jesse Gonzalez

Creative Writing Graduate Student / GE
Creative Writing Program

Nicky Gonzalez

Creative Writing Graduate Student
Creative Writing Program

Juan Carlos Gonzalez Zacarias

Travel Technician
College of Arts and Sciences
Office: Agate Hall 224

Bryna Goodman

Professor
History
Phone: 541-346-4825
Office: 331 McKenzie Hall
Research Interests: China

Raleigh Goodwin

Doctoral Student
Psychology Department
Office: 439 Straub Hall
Research Interests: Social-Personality

Breann Goosmann

Graduate Employee
History
Office: 340B McKenzie Hall
Research Interests: Medieval Japan

Sangita Gopal

Associate Professor of English
Comparative Literature
Phone: 541-346-5015
Office: 347B Hendricks Hall
Research Interests: Postcolonial Theory and Literature, South Asian Visual and Cultural Studies

Ksenia Gordeeva

PhD Student
General Linguistics Program
Linguistics
Office: 161 Straub Hall

Anni Gordon

Office Assistant
Anthropology
Phone: 541-346-5102
Office: 308 Condon Hall
Office Hours: MW: 12:00-5:00 pm and F 12:00-5:00 pm

Barbara Gordon-Lickey

Professor Emerit
Psychology Department
Research Interests: Neuroscience

Marvin Gordon-Lickey

Professor Emerit
Psychology Department
Research Interests: Neuroscience

Chandler Gorham

Graduate Employee
History
Office: 340M McKenzie
Research Interests: Urban History and Development, Race, Neighborhood Transition

Daniel Gorman

Office Manager
College of Arts and Sciences
Phone: (541) 346-3077
Office: 107B Friendly Hall
Office Hours: M-F 9-5

Eoghan Gormley

Graduate Teaching Fellow
Chemistry and Biochemistry

Tom Gorordo

Graduate Student, Physics Department
Physics Department
Phone: 541-346-4770
Office: 220 Willamette Hall

Fern Gossow

Pre-PhD student
Mathematics
Phone: 541-346-0986
Office: 204 University Hall

Evlyn Gould

Professor Emerita
College of Arts and Sciences Distinguished Professor in Humanities
Comparative Literature, European Studies, French, Romance Languages
Phone: 541-346-4020
Office: 224 Friendly Hall
Research Interests: nineteenth century French studies,Jewish studies,European studies,interdisciplinary studies in literature, music, dance

Melissa Graboyes

Associate Professor
Director of African Studies
History, Multidisciplinary Science
Phone: 541-346-2829
Office: 369 McKenzie Hall
Office Hours: Sign up at https://graboyes-officehours.youcanbook.me/

Julia Graham

Academic Programs Manager
English
Phone: 541-346-5062
Office: 118 PLC
Office Hours: Tuesday - Friday, 8am - 4pm

Patrick Graham

Field Coordinator
Earth Sciences
Office: Cascade Annex 160
Research Interests: Hazards, Remote Sensing, Geology, Geospatial

Devin Grammon

Assistant Professor of Spanish Sociolinguistics
Romance Languages, Spanish, Spanish Heritage Language Program
Phone: 541-346-4070
Office: 417 Friendly Hall
Office Hours: Wednesdays 3-5pm
Research Interests: Sociocultural Linguistics, Second Language Studies, Linguistic Ethnography, Language Contact, Quechua and Andean Spanish, Linguistic Landscapes

Elliot Granath

PhD student (Botvinnik)
Institute for Fundamental Science, Mathematics
Phone: 541-346-5634
Office: 324 Fenton Hall

Dominik Grätz

Doctoral Student
Psychology Department
Research Interests: Cognitive-Neuroscience

Jo Anna Gray

Professor Emerita
Economics
Phone: 541-346-4667
Office: 527 PLC
Office Hours: By appointment

Stephanie Gray

Grant & Research Administrator
Psychology Department
Phone: 541-346-4819
Office: 127 Straub Hall

Deborah Green

Greenberg Associate Professor, Hebrew Language & Literature
Religious Studies Advisor
Humanities Program, Judaic Studies Program, Middle East and North African Studies, Medieval Studies, Religious Studies
Phone: 541-346-5974
Office: 352 Susan Campbell Hall
Office Hours: Mondays 2:00pm-3:00pm in person, Tuesdays 10:00am-11:00am by Zoom and by appointment

Thomas Greenbowe

Senior Instructor II
Chemical Education
Chemistry and Biochemistry
Phone: 541-346-2218
Office: 177 Onyx Bridge

Thelma Greenfield

Professor Emerita
English
Office Hours:

Ian Greenhouse

Assistant Professor
Human Physiology, Neuroscience
Phone: 458-205-5393
Office: 348 Gerlinger
Research Interests: Neurophysiology of Action Control

Kristen Greenley

Senior Research Assistant
Program Manager, PSI
Psychology Department
Phone: 541-346-8073
Office: 425 LISB

Gabe Gregory

Graduate Teaching Fellow
OMQ, Physics Department
Phone: 541-346-4770
Office: 217 Willamette Hall

Stephen Gregory

Retired Assoc. Professor
Physics Department
Phone: 541-346-4764
Office: 160 Willamette Hall
Research Interests: Tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy; molecular electronics.

Marie Greig

Business Manager
Theatre Arts
Phone: 541-346-1979
Office: 216A Villard Hall

Keenan Greyslak

Graduate Employee
Human Physiology
Phone: 541-972-3108
Office: 112 Pacific Hall

Hayes Griffith

Professor Emeritus
Biophysical Chemistry & Molecular Biology
Chemistry and Biochemistry
Phone: 541-953-1542

Daniel Grimes

Assistant Professor
Biology
Phone: 541-346-7996
Office: 255C Streisinger Hall

Andrew Grimoldby

Doctoral Student
Economics
Office: 820 PLC
Office Hours: Winter 2023: Tueday 8:30am - 9:30am

Alison Groppe

Associate Professor, Chinese Literature
Asian Studies, East Asian Languages
Phone: 541-346-7015
Office: 317 Friendly Hall
Office Hours: Fall 2021: Tuesday 230-430pm

Elizabeth M. Grosz

ABD Ph.D.
Philosophy Department
Research Interests: 19th and 20th century Continental, East Asian philosophy (especially Kyoto School and Japanese Buddhism), Philosophical psychology, Phenomenology, and Existentialism

Ania Grudzien

Doctoral Student
Psychology Department
Office: 248 LISB
Research Interests: Cognitive Systems Neuroscience

Xiangchen Gu

graduate student
Chinese, East Asian Languages
Office: Friendly Hall 27
Office Hours: 3-4pm, R
Research Interests: Early China

Xuan Guan

PhD Student
General Linguistics Program
Linguistics
Office: 161 Straub Hall

Marina Guenza

Professor
Theoretical Physical Chemistry - Structure and Dynamics of Complex Fluids - Novel Computational Methods
Chemistry and Biochemistry, Institute for Fundamental Science, Physics Department
Phone: 541-346-2877
Office: 136 Klamath Hall

Paul J. Guernsey

ABD Ph.D.
IRES, Philosophy Department
Research Interests: the confluence of phenomenology, ecology, pedagogy (especially Dewey) and Marx, attempting to practice these disciplines in solidarity with women, children and ethnic minorities.

Matthew Guerra

Doctoral Student
Sociology
Office: 636 PLC
Office Hours: Winter 2023: By Appointment

Paul Guersney

ESSP/Geography Masters Student
Geography
Phone: 6-4965
Office: 202 Condon

Karen Guillemin

Professor
Biology
Phone: 541-346-5360
Office: 249C Klamath Hall

Louise Guizard

Pre-Masters
Philosophy Department
Research Interests: Philosophy of Ethics, American Philosophy

Robert Guldberg

Vice President and Robert and Leona DeArmond Executive Director, Phil and Penny Knight Campus for Accelerating Scientific Impact
Chemistry and Biochemistry
Phone: 541-346-3110
Office: 221 Knight Campus

Sarah Guldenbrein

Doctoral Student
Sociology
Phone: 541-346-1261
Office: 636 PLC
Office Hours: Winter 2023: By Zoom Appointment
Research Interests: Environmental sociology, ecofeminism, fashion and textiles, colonialism, critical theory, qualitative methods, pedagogy

Aaron Gullickson

Associate Professor
Sociology
Phone: 541-346-5061
Office: 727 PLC
Office Hours: Winter 2023: Tuesday 2 - 4pm
Research Interests: Family Life Course and Society, Inequalities and Stratification, Population and Ecology, Race and Ethnicity, Quantitative Approaches

Kaylynn Gunter

PhD Student
General Linguistics Program
Linguistics
Phone: 541-346-3906
Office: 161 Straub Hall

Wanjia Guo

Doctoral Student
Psychology Department
Research Interests: Cognitive-Neuroscience

Yinan Guo

Doctoral Student
Political Science
Office: 837 PLC
Office Hours: Winter 2023: Wednesday 10:00 - 11:00

Tanya Gupta

Career Instructor
PhD
Chemistry and Biochemistry
Phone: 541-346-2466
Office: 182 Onyx Bridge
Office Hours: Summer 2021 Term: Monday, Tuesday & Thursday - 1:00-2:00 PM (PDT)
Research Interests: Chemistry Education: Student-centered Inquiry based teaching, Technology Integration in Chemistry Education, Simulations & Game-Based Learning, Collaborative Group Work

Gantt Gurley

Associate Professor
Program Director, Harold Schnitzer Family Program in Judaic Studies, Advisor
Clark Honors College, German & Scandinavian, Judaic Studies Program
Phone: 541-346-4055
Office: 319 Friendly Hall
Research Interests: Ancient and medieval song culture, the birth of the novel, the Wandering Jew, Long Romanticism, Old Norse literature, the lyrical mode, Hans Christian Andersen, and notions of religiosity in the Danish Golden Age.

Emily Gustin

Lab Preparator
Biology
Phone: 541-346-9066
Office: 77 Klamath Hall

Gary Guth

PhD student (Lipshitz)
Mathematics
Phone: 541-346-4735
Office: M109 University Hall

Taylor Guthrie

Doctoral Student
Psychology Department
Office: 468 Straub Hall
Research Interests: Social-Personality

Nicholas Guttenberg

Research Associate
Physics Department
Office: 442 Willamette Hall

Monica Guy

Business and Budget Manager
Environmental Studies
Phone: 541-346-5081
Office: 144A Columbia Hall
Office Hours: TBA

Nathan Guy

Office Specialist
Academic Program Specialist
Computer Science, Data Science, Mathematics
Phone: 5413460989
Office: 202 Fenton Hall
Office Hours: 9:00AM-12:00Pm 1:00PM-5:00PM
Research Interests: Undergraduate and graduate student and program support

Patricia Gwartney

Professor Emerita
Sociology
Phone: 541-346-5007
Office Hours: Retired; no office hours
Research Interests: Comparative and Historical Approaches, Family Life Course and Society, Inequalities and Stratification, Population and Ecology, Race and Ethnicity, Qualitative Approaches, Quantitative Approaches